Festival of Scholars

An annual celebration of research, scholarship, and creativity

Science Showcase: Poster Session

Date: Friday, May 2, 2014
Time: 10:30am - 12:00pm
Location: Soiland Recreation Center
Description: Students from disciplines in the Natural Science Division will present their results in an interactive poster format. The featured research comes from honors and Capstone projects, class assignments, and faculty-directed collaborative efforts.

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Student Abstracts at this Session

Student(s):
Philip Albornoz

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Grady Hanrahan
Promoting Environmental Justice in Ventura County, CA: Integrating Science into Civic Engagement

Empirical studies show that residents from low-income neighborhoods often suffer high exposure to environmental pollutants. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for environmental justice in low-income communities based on findings. A sampling/analysis protocol was developed for soil and water from different areas. Urine samples were also collected to analyze pesticides and their associated metabolites. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) was utilized to characterize and identify pesticides and associated metabolites. Multiple identified peaks and mass spectra have suggested that pesticides are in the soil/water and urine. Expanding the project to include an examination of the link between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral outcomes will produce empirical data that affected populations and other key stakeholders—including community-based organizations and public health agencies—can use to promote cognitive as well as environmental health and well-being.




Student(s):
Ali Alhatrashi

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Craig Reinhart
Brain-Machine Interface

When we think, move, feel or remember something, the neurons in our 
brains are at work. That work is carried out by small electric signals. These signals are generated by differences in electric potential carried by ions on the membrane of each neuron. These brain signals can be converted into commands. These commands can be transformed into actions with the use of advanced technology. Furthermore, the future that this technology will be providing is promising to people with disabilities. When this technology is completely achieved, people with disabilities will enjoy the privileges of life and be independent. In this study, mainly the Emotiv EPOC Headset was used to read and process the neuro-signals. The neuro-signals will transfer by wireless connection into the Boe-Bot. However, first, a software platform was used to design, test, and use brain-computer interfaces. Then, the robot was trained separately for each command, recorded, and finally activated.




Student(s):
Jeremy Anderson

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Chad Barber
Studying the Effect of 2-D and 3-D Cell Culture Systems on Cell Viability and Gene Expression

Cells behave differently when grown on 2-D culture systems as compared to 3-D culture systems. This has been observed in valvular fibroblasts with PI3K/AKT pathway regulation. We studied if this behavior difference also includes S17 cells grown on different 3-D culture systems, specifically collagen (natural) and PEG (synthetic). To better understand cell-to-cell interaction and cell response to pharmaceuticals, it is necessary to study cell behavior in different environments. This can better predict how cells will interact with a drug in a specific tissue type in the body as compared to the interactions observed in the lab. This project will include creating 3-D matricies and analyzing the interactions of the cells in different culture system types. Previous research has shown that cells grow more on a 3-D as compared to a 2-D culture system. However, I want to examine how cell phenotype changes due to the environmental interaction in vitro.




Student(s):
Marilyn Arceo

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Grady Hanrahan
Development of a Scalable Neural Network Platform for Predictive Metabonomics

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are robust computational methodologies consisting of interconnected processing elements called nodes that work together to produce an output function. Inspired by the human central nervous system, neural networks have been used in various disciplines and fields. This computing paradigm uses nonlinear mapping structures that are universal and highly flexible junction approximators in order to generate data offering great diversity in the type of applications in which they can be utilized. Herein, we describe the development of ANNs to classify metabonomic data to diagnostic categories based on chemical structure and toxicity characteristics, for example, metabolites of pyrene and DNA adducts biomarkers. In essence, the goal is to unravel underlying mechanistic and chemico-physical explanations in relation to cellular damage and disease. This study will allow researchers to comprehend how ANNs behave by independent programming and modifying key mathematical components typically hidden to users of commercial software.




Student(s):
Marilyn Arceo

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Craig Reinhart
Dynamic Programming for Gene Structure Prediction for DNA

DNA sequencings have proven difficult when it comes to the prediction gene structure. Trying to predict a structure of gene, also known as gene parsing, from its native DNA sequence has proven to become difficult. Gene structures consist of specific sets of exon (coding) segments that alternate with intron (noncoding) segments. In order to predict any gene structures, it is required to predict and find the best location of both exon and intron segments. This process has proven to be difficult. In this study, dynamic programming will be used to predict gene structures from genomic data such as DNA. Dynamic programming algorithms are used to analyze fragments of gene structures to find optimal gene structures that satisfy the scoring functions. Segment based dynamic programming has proved to be useful in prediction of gene structures since segments of DNA are analysed and can be scored in-frame, saving time.




Student(s):
Donovan Argueta

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Craig Reinhart
Heart Prosthesis

The need for artificial organs is a growing problem in the medical field due to the growing population of ill individuals and a lack of suitable donors; a mechanical replacement provides a universal solution for all kinds of people. The main goal is to create an embedded system that utilizes a programming board two control sensors and effectors that effectively replicate the primary functions of the heart (i.e. blood flow, adaption to oxygen content, increasing rate of flow). The creative process includes building a prototype and debugging the program that operates the hardware.




Student(s):
Brian Bartell
and Nicole Camarillo, Brianna Panapa, Jena Chavez

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Michele LeBlanc
Relationship Between Knee Extensor Strength and Drop Jump and Back Squat Mechanics

The drop jump and back squat are common exercises performed in a strength and conditioning program. These exercises explicitly utilize the knee extensors to generate power and force to move from the squat position. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between knee extensor strength and drop jump and back squat mechanics. Ten collegiate athletes performed drop jumps off a 46 cm box with alternating lead leg and 3 sets of squats (5@50% 1RM, 5@70% 1RM, 3@ 90% 1RM). Six Vicon motion capture cameras obtained 3-dimensional coordinates to compute lower extremity kinematics and kinetics during all movements. Subjects stood on two Kistler force plates to measure the ground reaction forces in the anteroposterior, mediolateral and vertical directions. The Biodex isokinetic dynamometer was used to determine both legs’ knee extensor strength at 180°/s and 60°/s. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.




Student(s):
Essence Barton

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Hugh Lamont
Biomechanical Analysis

Biomechanical analysis has not only been crucial to understanding and enhancing performance of typical sports, but currently plays a critical role in understanding and enhancing dance movement. Today, research is still being conducted to build the foundation of understanding dance in biomechanical terms. The purpose of this study is to analyze the differences in take-off ground reaction forces and joint angles between two leaps in order to gain a better understanding of how take-off components effect the performance of a leap. Twelve female dancers between the ages of 18-25 years, all with at lease five years of dance experience or more, were recruited from California Lutheran University Campus and surrounding areas. Participants were asked to do a dance specific warm-up and perform two sets of leaps: a chasse jeté and a chane jeté. Motion capture analysis and force plates were used to collect data on take-off components.




Student(s):
Matthew Bryson

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Craig Reinhart
The Use of Virtual Reality for GUI Immersion and Workspace Optimization

With virtual reality coming into the norm, modern GUIs will not effectively allow users to use their virtual reality headsets in the most optimal fashion, similar to how operating systems were not optimized for touchscreens when they were released. The purpose of my project is to allow users to use their operating system optimally with virtual reality goggles, primarily the Oculus Rift. The project entails a redesign of the operating systems graphical shell, as well as doing optical correction for the oculus, to comply to its method of displaying 3d objects. The goal of the project is to make use of multiple displays less practical, and replace them with VR goggles. This project requires UI design, as well as programming in VC++ against both Windows and the Oculus API.




Student(s):
Emily Bullen
and Exercise Science Department.

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Hugh Lamont
The Acute Effect of Sound on Aerobic Performance

Sound is incorporated into every gym and arena ranging from music to audience noise. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sound influences aerobic performance. The type of sound that creates the greatest impact on the performer was also measured. The impact the type of sound made was measured by comparing the total time taken to complete a mile run exercise and how the subject perceived their exhaustion during and after performance. Thirty young adults completed three laboratory testing trials. Each trial differed depending on the randomized sound influence given to the subject that day. The three types of sound included the laboratory’s natural environment, silence, and motivational music. Every two minutes and .25 miles, the subject was asked their rate of perceived exertion. At the end of each trial, the subject rated their sense of accomplishment, their positive and negative experience, and level of fatigue.




Student(s):
Cody Butcher

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Hugh Lamont
Acute Effects of Different Static Stretching Durations on Sprint Performance in Track Athletes

Including static stretching into a warm-up as a way to improve athletic performance is still a popular idea. Some research disputes this but there are many different variables to consider such as the length of the stretch. The aim of the study was to look at the acute effects of various durations of static stretching on a 20-meter sprint in trained track runners. NCAA Div III sprinters from California Lutheran University acted as subjects. The study started off with an 800 meter warm up jog and then went into the stretching protocol; consisting of 4 partner assisted stretches and each was completed 3 times. There were 3 different durations, 30 seconds, 45 seconds, and 1 minute. After stretching there was 2 minutes until the first sprint and 5 minutes between the two trials. The subjects completed one of the stretching protocols each visit. There were a total of 3 visits.




Student(s):
Aisling Byrnes

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Craig Reinhart
Engineering for a Cure: Providing Options to Those With Irritable Bowel Disease

Each day Inflammatory Bowel Disease affects over 1.4 million Americans, making the search for a cure a matter of grave importance. The purpose of this study is to research and create an effective tissue engineered lining of the large intestine in order to produce possible solutions and cures for this disease. This study uses the combination of various medical and scientific papers as well as the research and knowledge of tissue engineering to construct an injectable solution into the damaged large intestine, in hopes of rebuilding a stronger and healthier lining. The proposed solution will provide a possible answer for those suffering with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.




Student(s):
Lucas Cartagena

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Michael Shaw
Comparison of High-Performance Automobile Airfoil Design Aerodynamics

With the prices of materials used to assemble high-performance automobiles constantly increasing, using various small-scaled models would be beneficial due to the lower cost of production. How will the predictions of the airfoil designs compare to those of full sized models? The purpose of this study is to examine the aerodynamics on various high-performance automobile airfoil designs. In order to do so, a modeled wind tunnel will be designed and constructed producing different wind velocities that each model will undergo. Data will be recorded and mathematical formulas will be used to analyze the data. Analytical results will be represented for each model. The results of each model are predicted to vary amongst one another due to the different surface design structures. In comparison to full sized models, airfoil design results are expected to be similar.




Student(s):
Carmen Cotsis
and Jeremy Anderson, Anthony Sotelo, William Frem

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Chad Barber
The Effects of Culturing Mouse Fibroblast Cells on PEG Hydrogel

Mouse fibroblast cells are used for tissue culture, and can be analyzed in different Poly Ethylene Glycol hydrogel environments. Optimal PEG hydrogel concentration and molecular weight need to be determined for 3T3 cells. To accomplish this, 3T3 cells were grown on PEG hydrogels to attempt to see at which PEG concentration these cells grow best. The PEG hydrogel can be analogous to a “jello consistency.” PEG hydrogels with higher concentrations of PEG yielded higher amounts of 3T3 cells. The PEG volume at 50 µl had the highest yield of cells around 11 cells/field, while the 25 µl and 20 µl PEG volumes had around 5 cells/field. Higher amounts of 3T3 cells were observed around edges of the PEG hydrogel than in the middle. Future experiments will focus on creating environments similar to in vivo conditions, by culturing 3T3 cells and other cell types with integrin and growth factors.




Student(s):
Tori Dahl

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Bryan Swig
Marsh Development Indicated by Halophyte and Seed Presence in a Dune Restoration Project

Wetlands, a vital ecosystem for coastal regions, are widely degraded and often destroyed (Mazik et al., 2010). Restoration projects attempt to revitalize these essential ecosystems through such processes as: planting halophytes, importing sand, and returning land to natural dune habitat. Our goal was to monitor the Ventura’s Surfer’s Point Dune Restoration Project. Halophyte diversity and abundance was monitored as well as seed abundance and diversity throughout the restoration site for one year between winter 2013 and 2014. Preliminary results suggest that halophyte seed diversity was constant throughout the restoration site, while abundance peaked in spring and summer seasons. There has been a decrease in number of halophytes found in the restoration site, but an overall increase in the size of individual halophytes. This suggests that dune or marsh habitat restoration is possible when there is a seed bank to support the establishment of a halophyte community.




Student(s):
Paul DaSilva

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. David Marcey
Signal Transduction Levels Modified by the Extra-eye Mutation in Drosophila melanogaster

The use of Drosophila melanogaster in genetic studies assists with the understanding of tissue development and signaling. Several reports suggest that JAK-STAT signaling is important in establishing the nascent ommatidial field and that silencing of regulation factors results in ectopic extra eyes (ee). Based on previous work by Marcey, ee may down regulate a negative regulator of the JAK-STAT pathway, Su(var)2-10, as a consequence of a P-element insertion into the Cpr gene and subsequent RNAi-induced heterochromatization of the Su(var)2-10 genomic region due to the nearby insertion. Genetic crosses of ee flies to engineered stocks in order to use an in vivo Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in vivo reporter assay for JAK-STAT activity have yet to yield meaningful results. Experimentation continues, as the reporters accurately reflect JAK/STAT pathway activity at all developmental stages in Drosophila.




Student(s):
Troy Davis
and John Zimbrado

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Michele LeBlanc
The Effect of Wearing a Helmet on the Biomechanics of a Baseball Pitch

The number of and severity of head injuries acquired by baseball pitchers due to come back line drives has increased as hitters have become more powerful. The solution of requiring pitchers to wear protective helmets has been proposed. However, many professional and amateur pitchers are opposed to this potential requirement as they feel the helmet will hinder their normal movement pattern. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are any biomechanical differences between pitching with and without a helmet. Collegiate pitchers from CLU’s baseball team performed maximum effort pitches of both types while six Vicon MX40 motion capture cameras obtained three-dimensional body coordinates. Nexus software was used to compute trunk, shoulder and elbow angles and angular velocities, as well as release speed. A dependent t- test was used to determine statistical differences between the two types of pitches (p < .05).




Student(s):
Carla De Lira
and Dr. Craig Reinhart, Dr. Myungsook Klassen

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Grady Hanrahan
Methodologies and Issues in the Usability of Android Application Development

Usability is a characteristic that focuses on users' experiences of the interface and features, which is crucial to a software's success in the market. For mobile devices, this is especially true due to their smaller screens, hardware capabilities, and virtual keyboards. Through a proposed Android application, this study explores how usability is achieved at the implementation level while also satisfying the application user's usability expectations. A high fidelity paper prototype was created to test how intuitive, easy to navigate, and aesthetically appealing the application was to participants. Participants completed a 30-40 minute session that was followed by a questionnaire which addressed several usability attributes. A novice programming environment was used to employ interactive design when implementing the application. This research introduces methodologies for novice and experienced programmers and focuses on usability trends in application development.




Student(s):
Kathryn Duffek

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Louise Kelly
Balance Training as a Means to Increase Agility and Decrease the Risk of Falling in the Elderly

Falling is one of the leading factors resulting in decreased quality of life and eventually death in the elderly. Exercise is recognized as being an effective way to decrease risk factors associated with falling by increasing static balance and walking. The purpose of this study was to observe and analyze the efficacy of University Village Thousand Oaks’ balance and gait programming on older adults’ agility and see if it decreased their risk of falling. Participants included 15 current residents of University Village Thousand Oaks (UVTO) over the age of 65. Participants completed a pre-study fall risk questionnaire, performed baseline testing procedures, and participated in balance training classes once or twice a week for three weeks. Warm-up, balance, and gait exercises were performed in 45 minute increments in each class. Participants completed a second fall risk questionnaire following the three weeks of balance training classes.




Student(s):
Christina Espegren

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Dennis Revie
The Effect of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection on Hedgehog Pathway Regulation in Monocytes

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is a highly conserved pathway that is most prevalent during fetal development, but also regulates healing and regeneration in some adult tissues, including the liver. However, it can also promote accumulation of inflammatory cells, fibrogenesis and vascular remodeling, which can lead to cirrhosis and cancer. Previous studies found up-regulation of Hh signaling in HCV infected hepatocytes, and hypothesized that this may be virally mediated, a response to liver damage, and/or the cause of increased permissiveness to HCV infection. We hypothesized that Hh signaling would be similarly up-regulated in monocytes when infected by HCV. This study utilized qPCR to compare concentrations of RNA for 10 genes along the Hh pathway in infected and uninfected monocytes. Preliminary results indicate variability in the concentrations of some of the genes, however, more trials and statistical analysis is required to determine the nature of Hh pathway regulation after HCV infection in monocytes.




Student(s):
Derek Field

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Linda Ritterbush
A Three-dimensional Comparison of Ontogeny in Two Morphotypes of Cambrian Agnostids

The Late Cambrian Agnostid genus Pseudagnostus from the U.S. Great Basin exemplifies a morphotype characterized by early pygidial expansion. We document its expansion using Z-stacking microscopy, a technology that facilitates both volumetric measurements and qualitative comparisons. This genus contrasts with Peronopsis, an exemplar of an axialobate morphotype with a dramatically lesser rate of expansion. Smallest early holaspid Pseudagnostus pygidia show expanded lateral areas inflating early, compared with the anteroaxis, followed by expansion of a wide deuterolobe area, a posterolateral region vaguely defined by accessory furrows. In contrast, small Peronopsis exhibit a rapid and distinct rise of the axial area, followed by moderate inflation of areas lateral to it. Pseudagnostus survived a Late Cambrian trilobite extinction event. We hypothesize that expanded volume in the early-expanding pygidia accommodated expansion of the uniquely clubbed Agnostid appendages, and gave Pseudagnostus a selective advantage given significant oxygen fluctuation in the Late Cambrian.




Student(s):
Ryan Glatt
and Mason Hill, Rebecca Haas

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Louise Kelly
Determinants of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Toddlers

The purpose of the present study was to predict factors that influence light physical activity (LPA), moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in toddlers from Ventura County. Participants included 9 families with toddlers aged 12-36months. Total physical activity was measured for 7 consecutive days using the Actigraph GT1X accelerometer. Age specific cut-points were used to identify time spent engaged at different physical activity intensities and sedentary behavior. Data on determinants were collected using a previously published questionnaire. Toddlers spent a total of 3909 ±1510 minutes per week engaged in total physical activity. Time spent in SB was 48.7±17.4%, 1.2±0.3% for LPA and 43.7±7.2 for MVPA. Several demographic, environmental, and psychosocial factors did significantly predicted SB, LPA or MVPA (p<0.05). Results from the current study suggest that determinants of toddlers’ physical activity and sedentary behavior may be predicable. 




Student(s):
Hilary Glossbrenner

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. David Marcey
Determining P-transposable Element Loci in the Genome of Drosophila melanogaster Extra Eye Mutants.

Studies of the mechanisms of developmental processes in Drosophila melanogaster have played a vital role in biomedical research. These studies have shed light on similar mechanisms in human development. By studying aspects of head development in D. melanogaster, a better understanding of the mechanisms by which tissues are partitioned into distinct developmental fields can be gained. It is suggested that in extra eye (ee) mutants of D. melanogaster, the JAK-STAT signaling pathway is up-regulated, causing an over proliferation of eye fields in developing tissue. This mutation results in a phenotype of extra eyes. The ee mutation is likely caused by a P-element insertion into a 5’ exon of the Cpr gene, which encodes a P450 oxidoreductase. This insertion places the P-element in a reverse orientation with respect to the transcriptional polarity of the Cpr gene, resulting in the presence of anti-sense P-element RNA within the Cpr transcript. This anti-sense RNA will then hybridize to DNA at the location of the P-element and heterochromatize the DNA, rendering it too compact to be transcribed. ee has been shown to be dependent upon ee genetic enhancers, which are P-elements at various genomic positions. ee has also been shown to be semi-allelic to the JAK-STAT inhibitor gene, Su(var)2-10, located on the right arm of chromosome 2. A hypothesis under test is that Su(var)2-10 is heterchromatized in extra eye flies. Previous research has confirmed that there is a transposable P-element located near Su(var)2-10, and further research using polytene chromosome in situ hybridization with labeled P-element hybridization will confirm a more precise location of this P- element. Results will represent a contribution to understanding novel mechanisms of gene regulation, especially RNAi mediated, epigenetic gene silencing that is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism in a wide variety of organisms, including our own.




Student(s):
Mauricio Guzman
and David Veloz, Jose Garcia

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Craig Reinhart
An Augmentation to Human Echolocation

There are some blind people who use echolocation to navigate by painting a mental image of the world around them through the use of clicks that they produce with their mouths. One of the limitations of echo locating is that you are required to constantly create these “click” like sounds to continue navigating, which can limit their freewill. Our device aims to augment this skill set and free an individual from this limitation by substituting their audible clicks. Allowing them to assimilate into quieter environments, it can be used in conjunction or in place of echolocating. This device will be made up of an Arduino Uno Board, which will be used alongside a transducer to send out ultrasonic sound waves; the echoes returned are down-converted into an audible frequency. Our project aims at helping human echolocator's and we intend to be in contact with World Access for the Blind.




Student(s):
Rebecca Haas
and Ryan Glatt, Mason Hill

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Louise Kelly
Ethnic Differences in Physical Activity and Inactivity

This study examines the relationship between light physical activity(LPA), moderate to vigorous physical activity(MVPA) and sedentary behavior(SB) and ethnicity. LPA, MVPA and SB were measured in 61 children (mean age 29.7±6.6 months) using the Actigraph GT1M. GT1M’s were worn for a minimum of 6 waking hours per day for a minimum of 4 days. Age appropriate cut-offs categorize time spent at LPA, MVAP and SB. ANOVA tested for significance ethnic differences in LPA, MVAP and SB. Caucasian children spent 56% in SB, 1.3% in LPA and 42.6% in MVPA, where as Hispanic children spent 58.8% in SB, 1.2% in LPA and 40.5% in MVPA. There were no significant ethnic differences in LPA(F(1,31)=0.002, p=0.961), MVPA(F(1,31)=1.020, p=0.320), and SB (F(1,31) = 0.194, p=0.662). While there was no relationship between activity and ethnicity the amount of inactivity at this young age is of major concern.




Student(s):
Hunter Hamaker
and James Hoerr

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Craig Reinhart
The Poor Mans Programmable Scope

Our project will create a rifle scope that accounts for distance, windage, and caliber of a projectile. We have created a digital model that shows 3 different sides of the projectiles path, what this enables us to do is have a visual idea of how far the projectile drops, how much the projectile veers left or right, as well as the end location of the projectile given a certain distance. The Goal of this project is to recreate other expensive scopes for significantly less, as well as flex our software engineering skills. We are using an agile approach to creating it. This methodology creates constant challenges for us to overcome. This is exceptionally true for when we plan to create the actual scope and test to determine if our simplified approach is viable.




Student(s):
Mason Hill
and Ryan Glatt, Rebecca Haas

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Louise Kelly
Tracking of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Toddlers (12-36 months)

This study examined the tracking characteristics of light activity (LPA) moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) over a one-year period. Tracking of LPA, MVPA and SB were examined in 24 toddlers with a baseline mean age of 19.83 ± 5.84. LPA, MVPA and SB were measured objectively for 7 consecutive days annually using the Actigraph GT1M accelerometer. Time spent in LPA, MVPA and SB was established using our previously published age specific cut-offs. Tracking of LPA, MVPA and SB were analyzed in three ways: Spearman Rank correlations, percentage agreements and finally KAPPA statistics. There were significant Spearman rank correlations for MVPA and SB (rs=0.63,p=0.02;rs=0.62,p=0.02). Percentage agreement for LPA, MVPA and SB were 2.1%, 4.2% and 7.7. KAPPA statistics for LPA, MVPA and SB were poor (KAPPA <0.2). These results indicate low levels of tracking of LPA, MVPA and SB in toddlers over a one-year period.




Student(s):
Mason Hill
and Eric Flores

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Louise Kelly
A Comparison of the Effects of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on State Anxiety &amp; Cognitive Function

There is an increasing prevalence of anxiety in college students. Acute bouts of exercise have been associated with decreased state anxiety (SA) and improved cognitive function (CF). It would be valuable if college-age students had an anxiety intervention that was affordable, easily accessible, and had minimal side effects. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise and a bout of resistance exercise on SA and CF. Participants were required to take part in 3 lab visits randomized between aerobic exercise (AE), resistance exercise (RE), and control conditions lasting 35 minutes each. AE involved cycling at a self-selected intensity. RE involved 10 repetitions of six bilateral exercises. SA and CF were assessed before and after each condition. SA was assessed using the state anxiety inventory (SAI). CF was assessed using the Stroop and N-back Tasks.




Student(s):
Kristina Hulse

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Dennis Revie
HCV Gene Expression in the Fat Absorption and Digestion Metabolic Pathway

There is still very little known about the pathogenesis of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), a disease that can lead to serious problems in the liver such as cirrhosis or liver failure. In order to learn more about how this virus is spread through the body, various studies have been done with multiple pathways and genes. The purpose of these studies is to determine if there are any specific genes that change in activity after infection by HCV, which could serve as potential targeting for treatment or cure of the virus. In this experiment, primers from the Fat Absorption and Digestion pathway were used with infected and non-infected cDNA in a real time PCR to ascertain whether there were any genes that showed significant concentration differences between the infected and non-infected samples.




Student(s):
Drake Hunter
and Aviana Kase

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Craig Reinhart
Development of a Cooperative Multi-platform Game

There are very few games on the market today that allow multiplayer interaction among computers with different operating systems and mobile devices. This project seeks to develop a multi-platform, multiplayer video game that is compatible with all capable platforms. Our goal is to create the foundation for game development that does not limit users to any one platform. This will allow users to play a cooperative puzzle game together using their platform of choice. To achieve this goal, a utility library is developed for each platform. These libraries implement all the necessary platform-specific functions, which allow the main project to be completely platform-independent. The game is designed around our focus of multi-platform compatibility. Players will have to combine the skills available to each of their game characters in order to solve puzzles and advance through each level.




Student(s):
Yesenia Ibarra

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Kris Karsten
The Relationship Between Bite Force, Sprint Speed, and Temperature in S. Occidentalis Lizards

The purposes of this study were to determine if there was a relationship between temperature and bite force and if there was a trade-off between bite force and sprint speed in female Sceloporus occidentalis lizards. We proposed that the female bite performance will have a lower curve than males, but will exhibit relatively high performance across a wide range of temperatures. However, one trade-off for having stronger bite force may be that larger heads inhibit sprint speed. We measured bite force in 18 females across 9 temperatures ranging from 15-38°C. We incubated lizards for 1hr at each test temperature. Each lizard bit the force transducer 3 times per trial. We also incubated lizards at 35°C for 1hr and then measured their sprint speed on a racetrack. Temperature did not have an effect on bite force performance in female lizards. We found no trade-off between bite force and sprint speed.




Student(s):
Hayley Jensen

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Craig Reinhart
Healthy Farms, Healthy Food: Using Bioengineering to Improve Health for the Farmworker Population

Long hours of biomechanically inefficient work by farmworkers results in disproportionately high rates of musculoskeletal disorders. A lack of affordable and accessible health care has resulted in chronic health problems and limited work. By establishing better workplace practices through bioengineering, farmworkers can prevent injury. The goal of this project was to create a hypothetical device that would aid in the prevention of MSDs in the farmworker population. This goal was aided by an analysis of current relevant healthcare policy and its inability to meet the great demands and needs of the population today. This project used a literature review in health policy and healthcare studies specific to MSDs. Interviews with healthcare providers and farmworkers provided qualitative data. This combination resulted in a finalized project that facilitates the prevention of MSDs in active farmworkers while highlighting the ways in which this community is drastically underserved by current healthcare policy.




Student(s):
Hillis Johnson
and Astrid Olivares, Trevor Hougen, Timothy Schwochert, David Gutierrez, Keenan Woods, Lindsay Lawrence

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. John Tannaci
Catalyst-Transfer Direct Arylation and Related Polymer Applications

Recently, Suzuki-Miyaura coupling conditions have been developed to afford controlled growth polymerizations of conjugated monomers. These polymerizations proceed via a catalyst-transfer mechanism, which facilitates the synthesis of advanced organic electronic materials through precise control over molecular weight and end-group functionalization, including access to block copolymers. Despite the emergence of direct arylation as a viable cross-coupling method, catalyst-transfer direct arylation has not been extensively studied. Utilizing small-molecule model systems and quantitative GCMS analysis, palladium-catalyzed direct arylation conditions were optimized to favor the catalyst-transfer mechanism. A wide substrate scope, including a range of heterocycles and aryl halides, has been achieved. Further application of this methodology to the synthesis of conjugated polymers will be discussed.




Student(s):
Juliana Jones
and Ally Ruggles

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Michele LeBlanc
Biomechanical Comparison of Single and Double Pirouettes

Ballet is a technical form of dance frequently performed but rarely studied from a biomechanical perspective. A pirouette is a controlled rotation on one foot created by angular impulses received from the non-support foot. Depending on the desired rotation, dancers will use various strategies. The purpose of this study was to compare the lower extremity kinematics and kinetics of single and double pirouettes. Females with prior dance experience performed on a Kistler force plate with a six-camera Vicon motion capture system collecting reflective marker locations. The knee flexion angle, push off force of the non-supporting leg, and the vertical placement of the non-supporting leg on the supporting leg were analyzed. Dependent t-tests were used to compare between the two types of pirouettes (p<0.05).




Student(s):
Aubrey Kaye

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Craig Reinhart
Theatre Arts Department Library Catalog

Currently, the CLU Theatre Arts Department has over 1,000 volumes including individual plays, anthologies, and theatre-related books. The titles are listed in an Excel document, but there is no efficient way of recording who borrows the books and how long they have been checked out, or
of searching the collection. I am building a library catalog system with MySQL tables for the collection and for active patrons and a user interface that allows workers to search for the record of a book or of a patron. For a basic framework, I am using client-server-database code I worked
on in CSC-335 (Software Engineering). To advance the project, I studied the modification of SQL tables, the creation of executables, and more advanced Java GUI elements than those I had previously used in class.




Student(s):
Kathi Kirkeby

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Bryan Swig
Comparison of Parasite Load and Pollution Levels in Marine Ecosystems

Ecosystem health can be determined by the water quality and the abundance of organisms that live there. By comparing parasite load and pollutant level data, we can determine whether or not pollutants cause a decline in ecosystem health. Pacific sanddabs, Citharichthys sordidus, were collected from Santa Monica Bay and Dana Point and examined for both endoparasites and ectoparasites. Parasite load of C. sordidus was compared to water quality to determine the effect pollution has on ecosystem health. Data suggests that poor water quality results in a higher parasite load in C. sordidus, and therefore supports a negative correlation between water quality and ecosystem health.




Student(s):
Bjorn McMillan

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Craig Reinhart
3-Dimensional Design and Printing as Applied to The Replication of an Industrial Arm

3-Dimensional computer modeling is the method by which the majority of modern products are designed. With the recent advent of the 3-D printer, the actual creation of a computer modeled object can happen in just a few hours using various raw materials. In an investigation into this process of design and development an industrial robotic arm was chosen to be modeled in order to add a degree of difficulty while also gaining insight into the robotic aspect of modern production. All three components of this project highlight the major advances in technology that are currently being utilized in numerous industries today. This project has been designed from the ground up by myself so every aspect of the unit has had a certain level of creativity.




Student(s):
Garrett Naumann

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Dennis Revie
Quantification of Cytokine Expression in Hepatitis C Infected Monocytes

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a single-stranded positive-RNA virus that causes inflammation of the liver, it also appears to be harbored in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) such as monocytes (Patricia Baré, 2009). The purpose of this study is to use Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) and FACS to quantify cytokine RNA levels and protein expression in infected monocytes from an immortalized culture after prolonged infection. The genes examined using qPCR in this study are AKNA, IL-2, IRF2, LTB, ANKRD1, SNARK, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, TRAF2, DDX58, IFN-α1, IFN-B1, TLR3, and CD81 and controls GAPD1 and ACTB. There is considerable down-regulation of ANKRD1 and IL-B1, and considerable up-regulation of TLR3, IL-7, IFN- α1, DDX58, AKNA, IL-10, and SNARK. These results may suggest that HCV interferes with the regular functions of PBMC and possibly explains the persistence of the virus in those infected.




Student(s):
Shayna Perry

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. David Marcey
Immunofluorescence-staining of a Drosophila Protein Cross Reacts with Abs Raised against Human PTP

Studies using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster have provided significant understanding of signaling pathways essential in cellular differentiation, development and homeostasis. Protein Tyrosine Kinases (PTK’s) and Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) work in opposition to modulate such pathways. Previous work in the Marcey lab implicated down regulation of inhibitors of the JAK (PTK) pathway in the over proliferation of eye tissue resulting from the extra eye mutation. We therefore used antibodies generated against conserved domains of the PTP family of proteins to examine their expression in wild type and mutant flies, because these are predicted to antagonize JAK signaling. Specifically, we wished to identify the Drosophila proteins that cross react with anti-human PTP antibodies, as a first step in studying their expression. An anti-human PTPD2 antibody identified a Drosophila protein expressed in a novel pattern involving a small subset of neurons. We also utilized and anti-human PEZ antibody in an attempt to identify the Drosophila protein that cross reacts with this antibody. We tested the hypothesis that the cross reacting protein is the product of the PTP61F gene, utilizing immunostaining of ovaries in various genetic backgrounds. Although significant amounts of cross reacting protein were detected, the levels were unaltered in PTP61F mutant ovaries. Our results demonstrate evolutionary conservation of PTP structure and antigenicity, although to date we have been unable to identify the Drosophila gene products that cross reacted with the anti-human PTP antibodies.




Student(s):
Kathleen Phan

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Grady Hanrahan
Metabonomics Approach Towards Time- and Dose-Dependent Biomarker Elucidation

Metabonomics analysis is used to identify key biomarkers for potential diseases associated with woodsmoke exposure. This study used a combination of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to separate, identify, and explore the reciprocal relationship between structural mechanistic and chemico-physical properties of methylated and non-methylated phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds/metabolites in human urine will be identified and subsequently screened. The overall goal is to develop a comprehensive approach towards dose- and time-dependent metabolic screening, which will lead to a greater understanding of underlying disease mechanisms and related toxicity.




Student(s):
Cristian Plascencia

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Hugh Lamont
Acute Effects of 4 Warm Up Modalities With or Without Whole Body Vibration Upon Sport Performance

The prescription of Whole Body Vibration treatments have been proven to elicit Post Activation Potentiation. The purpose of this study was to asses’ acute differences in Jump Height (JH), absolute and relative Peak Power (Pmax, Pmax/kg), and Peak Velocity (Vmax) during 8 CMVJ’s following 4 treatments with and without Whole Body Vibration (WBV). METHODS. 19 NCAA Division III athletes participated in five testing sessions; one randomly assigned treatment per session: (1.WBV, 2.CMVJ, 3. WBV, CMVJ, WBV, 4. CMVJ, WBV, CMVJ). Four, three-way repeated measures ANOVA’s; Condition (4), Time points (9), Group (2) utilizing a Bonferroni correction, and post hoc tests where necessary. RESULTS. No significant interactions were seen for any of the variables (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS. Significant differences were seen between genders, but not treatments. High between and within subject variability suggests individualized variations of the treatments may be more effective than the treatments alone.




Student(s):
Kristen Prosser
and Michele LeBlanc, Ph.D., Michael Bahk, M.D., Mark Mirisch D.P.T., Steven Hawkins, Ph.D.

Faculty Mentor:
Dr Steve Hawkins
Differences in Bone Density and Muscle Strength between Mechanical and Biological Osteoarthritis

The purpose of this study was to determine if differences exist in bone density and muscle strength between asymptomatic femoral acetabular impingement (FAI), symptomatic FAI and biological osteoarthritis (OA). Thirty-two subjects aged 18-83 years were distributed into one of three groups based on radiographic hip assessments. Bone density (BMD) was determined by DXA, and muscle strength by 1-RM leg press. Controlling for age, significant differences in hip BMD were found between asymptomatic (right 0.815±0.160 g/cm2, left 0.839±0.150 g/cm2) and symptomatic (right 0.905±0.140 g/cm2, left 0.931±0.170 g/cm2) FAI groups (p<0.05), and for relative and absolute strength between asymptomatic FAI (2.6±0.9 kg/kg, 227.9±84.2 kg, respectively) and OA (2.1±1.3 kg/kg, 143.8±100.9 kg, respectively) groups (p<0.05) as well as between the symptomatic FAI (3.0±1.1 kg/kg, 267.8±95.6 kg, respectively) and OA (2.1±1.3 kg/kg, 143.8±100.9 kg, respectively) groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, bone remodeling may be greater in symptomatic FAI compared to asymptomatic FAI.




Student(s):
Lyndsey Pugh

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. David Marcey
Effects of Defective Proventriculus (dve) on the Extra Eye (ee) Mutation in Drosophila melanogaster

In order to test the hypothesis that the extra eye (ee) mutation in Drosophila melanogaster will cause an increased over-proliferation of eye tissue due to the defective proventriculus (dve) mutation, the effects of various alleles of dve on ee penetrance is examined. The dve mutation is known to disturb normal inhibition of eye-antennal imaginal discs thereby producing enlarged eye fields. We expected that one particular dve mutant out of four dve mutants when crossed with the ee mutant would elevate ee penetrance relative to a control balancer chromosome. One ee/dve genotype may possibly show an increase in penetrance of the extra eye phenotype but the experiment is currently ongoing. One ee/dve genotype did not show increased penetrance of the extra eye phenotype as predicted (chi square, p>0.05). The last two ee/dve genotypes were far from showing increased penetrance of the extra eye phenotype as predicted (chi square, p˂0.05). Ongoing work is focusing on determining the expression patterns of the dve gene in extra eye mutant genotypes using an in vivo green fluorescent protein (GFP) assay.




Student(s):
Lauren Rohach

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Ken Long
Determining Whether Commercial Antibodies Bind to Glutamate Receptors in Lymnaea Stagnalis

Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brains of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. It is very abundant in the ganglia of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis where it has roles in learning, memory and behavior. Both major classes of glutamate receptors (NMDA, AMPA) are found in Lymnaea ganglia. Lymnaea is an important invertebrate model of simple nervous systems. My study was to determine whether commercially available antibodies will bind to Lymnaea glutamate receptors. If commercially available antibodies recognize glutamate receptors in Lymnaea, then studies on the role of glutamate in its nervous system would be greatly enhanced. I tested a monoclonal antibody raised against an NMDA glutamate receptor in the fruit fly (Drosophila) using gel electrophoresis and western blotting. The monoclonal antibody did not bind to the glutamate receptor proteins in Lymnaea. Further testing is being done with polyclonal antibodies to AMPA glutamate receptors.




Student(s):
Kendall Sauter

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Louise Kelly, Dr. Hugh Lamont, and Dr. Michele LeBlanc
Kinematic Effects of Different Block Locations on Sprint Performance

The sprint start is unique because it is arguably the most variable component of a 100m dash. Block setup is individualized for optimal performance. This study’s aim was to analyze the effect of changing block location relative to the starting line on sprint performance. 15 sprinters/hurdlers, recruited from CLU’s track and field team, each performed a total of 9 10m sprints (3 at the athlete’s preferred location, 3 at 5% of leg length closer than preferred, and 3 at 5% of leg length longer than preferred). Trials were randomized with 1 minute of rest between trials and 5-7 minutes after a set of three trials. Two JVC Everio video cameras collected sagittal plane motion. 4 points were digitized using MaxTRAQ software to calculate center of mass distance from the start line, front knee angle, projection angle, 5m and 10m times and velocities. Statistical significance was determined with p < 0.05.




Student(s):
Jennifer Shipley

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Louise Kelly
The Effect of Video Images on Motivation During Exercise

Physical activity is beneficial to a healthy life; however, many adults are not participating in the recommended amount of physical activity. This may be due to many barriers to physical activity, particularly motivation. The aim of this study is to analyze the use of video images as a tool for motivation for aerobic exercise in college students. Participants will complete the PAR-Q, BREQ-2 and pre AD-ACL before exercise. They will run on a treadmill at a comfortable pace for at least 10 minutes. At the five minute mark, participants will be shown a motivating, relaxing or no video for 5 minutes. After the video, participants will be instructed to run for as long as they want, up to 15 minutes. After exercise, the participant will complete the Borg Scale and post AD-ACL.




Student(s):
Michael Soucy

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Michele LeBlanc
The Effect of Fatigue on Patellar Tendon Strain in Healthy Subjects

Measuring mechanical properties of tendon is difficult to achieve in vivo, however, recently a software program, EchoSoft, was developed to enable obtaining mechanical characteristics of soft tissue via acoustoelasticity. Purpose: To determine the effects of fatigue on patellar tendon strain. Methods: Twenty three active males and females (age 20.4 ± 1.7 years) performed two sets of isometric knee extensor contractions on a Biodex System 3 dynamometer before and after undergoing a fatigue protocol. Results: The subjects’ overall peak torque was lower (150.4 ± 56.7 Nm versus 134.6 ± 55.7 Nm; p =0.012) after the fatiguing protocol. However, the peak strain, both overall and during analysis period, did not differ between pre and post-fatigue trials (14.0 ± 3.2% versus 14.8 ± 4.5% and 11.6 ± 2.8% versus 11.5 ± 4.7%). Conclusion: These results indicate that following muscle fatigue, the tendon yields similar amounts of strain from smaller amounts of torque.




Student(s):
Nolan Stacey

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Craig Reinhart
Mobile Application Design For iOS 7 Platform

In the past few years, the use of mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets, and now wearables has grown significantly. Now that mobile devices have become so popular, it is imperative for programmers and software engineers to learn and become familiar with application design for mobile platforms. In this case, I will be using Apple’s iOS 7 platform as a substrate for learning mobile application design. By utilizing Apple’s SDK along with various online resources, such as tutorials, guides, and forums, I am able to gain hands on experience with creating mobile applications for Apple devices. I can use this experience to create mobile applications for small businesses, companies, or for recreational purposes. Having this knowledge makes it possible to expand software development and advance programming paradigms for use in mobile computing.




Student(s):
Olutungie Terry
and Dr Haco Hoang, Dr Louise Kelly, Dr Jane Rider

Faculty Mentor:
Dr Haco Hoang, Dr Louise Kelly
Does the Current State Policy on Physical Education Affect Participation?

The state currently mandates 400 minutes of physical activity every 10 days. Research suggests that a large number of schools do not meet this requirement. However, the majority of this research was conducted in large urban areas. There is little data on whether schools from sub-urban areas meet these physical education requirements. This study aims to determine whether or not current city and statewide policies regarding physical education promote or impede an active lifestyle in todays youth. In order to answer this question, in-depth interviews and questionnaire will be conducted with high school physical education teachers.




Student(s):
Alexandria Varshawsky

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Louise Kelly, Dr. Hugh Lamont
Do Senior Adults Reach Nutritional and Physical Activity Health Recommendations

Current research has shown the importance of exercise and nutrition of elderly adults improving their quality of life. With research suggesting the best-recommended levels of exercise and nutrition, little research has been conducted to see if these levels are actually being met. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare diet and physical activity level of healthy seniors residing in an assisted living home (University Village Thousand Oaks) to the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) physical activity guidelines. To discover if seniors are reaching the recommended levels, 13 participants have agreed to wear a physical activity monitor (Actigraph) and to record their daily food intake in a food diary for a total of three consecutive days. This data will then be compared to the best acceptable levels for exercise and nutritional balance for healthy older adults.




Student(s):
Hayley Verner
and Taylor Beacham

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Bryan Swig
Isolation of DNA from Great White Shark (C. Carchiarias) Teeth Fragments

Possible DNA extraction techniques are being tested on great white (Carcharodon carcharias) teeth fragments. It's our hope that this technique will provide a more efficient less invasive method of capturing genomic DNA from white sharks (C. carcharias). This potential information in tandem with shark population studies has the potential to be used to identify individuals to populations. It is well established that California has its own population of migrating great white sharks (C. carcharias), but it is not clear if local attacks are related to these local populations or transient sharks moving from Australia or South Africa (Wen et al. 2007). We propose that our technique could be used in comparison to a geographic based gene frequency map, developed separately to answer the question; are great white sharks from the local California population responsible for attacks in California?




Student(s):
Annika Weber

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Grady Hanrahan
Metabolic Pathway Elucidation Towards Time- and Dose-Dependent Electrophoretic Screening of Phenols

This study investigates the separation and mechanistic pathway elucidation of pentachlorophenol and its metabolites to better understand their possible toxic and carcinogenic affects. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were thus employed to separate and characterize these compounds, demonstrating simultaneous determination of pentachlorophenol and its associated metabolites. Results provide confirmation that these techniques are effective methods of separation and identification of phenolic compounds and their derivatives. Such outcomes bring about advances in chemical separation science as it relates to phenolic-related exposure.




Student(s):
Erica Wiener

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Andrea Sell
Language and Exercise

Does the name of an exercise affect participation in that exercise? The purpose of this experiment was to determine if language changes perceived exertion of an exercise, and specifically, if units in minutes is perceived to be more strenuous than units in miles while running the same distance. 15 recreationally trained college age individuals participated in the study. Each individual ran on the Biodex 400 treadmill for two separate conditions. In the first condition, participants ran for 10 minutes, while hearing distance cues based in minutes ran. In the second condition, participants ran for 1 mile while hearing distance cues based in increments of one mile. During both conditions, participants’ pace was set to 6 miles per hour by the experimenter, without the participant knowing their pace. The results of this experiment will have implications for the effect of language on perceived exertion, and on participation in exercise.




Student(s):
John Zimbardo
and Dr. Hugh Lamont, Dr. Louise Kelly, and Dr. Steven Hawkins

Faculty Mentor:
Dr. Hugh Lamont
Difference in Substrate Utilization After Ingesting Caffeine or a 5Hour Energy Drink During Exercise

The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a difference in substrate utilization during moderate intensity steady state aerobic exercise with the ingestion of a caffeine supplement or a 5-hour energy drink for young adults. Participants (n=15, 18-30 years) were required to participate in 15 minutes of moderate intensity exercise after ingestion of 200 mg of caffeine. Four days later, subjects completed the same bout of exercise after ingesting a 5-hour energy drink. Spirometry was used to obtain the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) of the amount of carbon dioxide produced over the amount of oxygen consumed during exercise. RER values were obtained 2 minutes and 5 minutes after the completion of the exercise bout. A significant difference (p≤.05) in RER suggests that the substrate utilization during exercise can be different with the aid of a caffeine supplement or a 5 hour energy drink.




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